Even successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in half the cases leads to relapse. American researchers from Harvard University have developed a vaccine whose action can completely destroy AML cells in the human body.
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The vaccine is a cryogel framework made of polyethylene glycol and alginate, inside of which there are GM-CSF and CpG-ODN molecules. They activate dendritic cells, which, together with T cells, destroy cancer cells.
Scientists vaccinated rodents with leukemia with an experimental vaccine and the disease was defeated, while the control group of mice died within 60 days.
After 100 days, the rodents were given a second dose of the vaccine and examined for signs of cancer. They were not there.
On this basis, scientists concluded that the vaccine protects against the recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia.
The vaccine has confirmed its effectiveness / Photo: Pixabay
To confirm effectiveness, scientists took the bone marrow from the cured rodents and transplanted it to healthy individuals. After transplantation of the “vaccinated” bone marrow, they were also injected with acute myeloid leukemia cells, but all the mice survived.
We saw that the immune defense was transmitted to mice and the resistance to leukemia was confirmed,
– commented on the authors.
Chemotherapy enhances vaccine action / Photo: Unsplash
The team then tested the vaccine with chemotherapy, which is usually given to patients with leukemia. This combination enhanced the immune response by six times.
A similar bone marrow transplant to healthy mice also showed no signs of cancer.
Now the team is working on improving the vaccine, in particular on the possibility of personalized therapy.