This year, the mushroom season began at the end of May, then the first wave happened, which, however, did not last long – the mushrooms disappeared just a week later.
And in the middle of July, after heavy rains, they returned to the forests of the middle zone of the country.
Just in huge quantities. Mushroom pickers do not believe in their happiness and willingly share photos of their prey in social networks. What interesting mushrooms can be found in July? How long will the season last? The World of News found out about this.
As the well-known Russian mycologist Mikhail Vishnevsky explains, the early start of the mushroom season is caused by an early and friendly warm spring without frost: “In winter we had plenty of snow, which ensured the humidity of the earth. In the spring there was a lot of rain. Therefore, we first had an early summer wave of mushrooms, which began in mid-May. The summer mushrooms and boletus were first noted, followed by mushrooms, boletus and May rangers, and now aspen mushrooms with porcini mushrooms. By their edibility, summer mushrooms are no different from autumn ones, moreover, they are rarely wormy at the start. ”
Now mushroom pickers collect mushrooms we love: white, aspen mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, boletus, russula. In addition, in the forest there are summer mushrooms less familiar to the people, pereskovy champignons, pulmonary oyster mushrooms, floats, maremuhi, umbrellas. In any case, in the forest you can find a lot of interesting things. The main thing is to know what to look for, how to cook, how to harvest and what not to confuse.
To date, scientists know about about 200 thousand species of mushrooms, but in reality they are supposedly at least 2 million. Mushrooms live everywhere – in the soil, in the trees, even in the ocean.
The first fungi appeared 500 million years ago, but recently paleontologists have found capsulated forms of fungi 2 billion years old, when, as is commonly believed, there were not even single-celled organisms.
THE MUSHROOM KINGDOM IS VERY DIFFERENT
For mushrooms, people have a mainly culinary interest. And only a small part of the representatives of this kingdom is eaten.
If to speak even more precisely, we are interested in mushroom bodies – what is shown on the surface of the earth. At the same time, the main part of the fungus is located underground, the mycelium can grow to many meters around the mushroom body. That is why there is absolutely nothing terrible if you do not carefully cut the mushroom, but unscrew it from the “root” – it will not cause any damage to the mycelium.
Alas, from the point of view of gastronomy, the knowledge of most of the mushroom pickers is very organic, and many edible and even delicious mushrooms are taken as grebes. For example, mushrooms, umbrellas. The most common in central Russia is a motley umbrella mushroom and a red mushroom umbrella. Many unknowingly take these mushrooms for amanita. In the meantime, to taste the mushroom strongly resembles chicken. Experienced gourmets fry his cap in batter and dry the leg for soup.
And very few people know about the edibility of a wood fungus called tinder sulfur-yellow, or, as experienced mushroom pickers call it, HOA. The season of the sulfur yellow yoke has already begun and will last until autumn.
It is impossible not to notice this miracle of nature – the acid-yellow color makes this mushroom very bright, and by its structure it resembles building foam. In our latitudes, the fungus grows mainly in deciduous trees: alder, birch, poplar, oak, willow or linden. If the TJS has grown on willow, its taste will be sour.
To the touch a young mushroom is wet and soft – it is the young that is of the greatest interest to gourmets, for it possesses the best taste qualities. Vegetarians use it as an alternative source of protein, and the calories in it are obscenely small (only 22 per 100 grams), which makes it very attractive for those who dream of a slim figure.
Mushroom can be fried even without pre-boiling. In addition, it makes excellent mince, filling for pies, pies; you can pickle it and make soups out of it.
This mushroom is not only tasty, but also useful, therefore it has long been used in traditional medicine. It contains a lot of B vitamins, manganese, potassium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus, resinous substances and antibiotics.
By the way, resinous substances, which are about 70% in the mushroom, improve the functioning of the liver, lungs and biliary tract. Due to the high content of polysaccharides, the HOA is considered a means of preventing cancer. In addition, the HOA is useful for people with diabetes: using it helps regulate blood sugar levels.
Another delicacy of the beginning of summer is summer mushrooms. They are called summer, but grow from late spring to October. Like all mushrooms, they prefer dying trees, stumps, fallen trees. The main distinguishing feature of summer experience is that they “settle down” with large families.
However, an inexperienced mushroom picker may confuse them with one of the most poisonous representatives of the mushroom kingdom – the galerina fringed. Usually she grows alone, but, by the way, her whole families are also found. In addition, there is a whitish bloom on her leg.
Well, even summer mushrooms are distinguished by a pleasant mushroom smell. Because of this, these mushrooms can be added to almost any dish and dilute the taste of other non-expressive representatives of this kingdom – your culinary creation will simply smell sweet.
As for poisonous mushrooms, then, alas, many of our mushroom pickers are still collecting thin pigs, the toxicity of which in the scientific world has been in doubt for about 30 years. However, the argument “I have eaten and will eat all my life” still works. In the meantime, the same poison as in the pale toadstool, muscarin, is present in the composition of the thin pig. And then how lucky.
In our forests there is also a thick pig – the mushroom doesn’t have anything to do with the thin pig, even by the family. The svinushka has a thick fat foot, as if covered with black velvet. This mushroom is edible, but its taste is low.
HOW TO STORE SUMMER MUSHROOMS?
In many different ways. The easiest way is to freeze them, of course, in order to get them and use them in cooking. It is always better to freeze boiled mushrooms – so they will take much less space in the freezer. In addition, honey agaric, chanterelles, white, aspen, boletus can be dried. And all the other summer mushrooms can be salted and pickled.
Well, finally it remains to remind the main rule of any mushroom picker – if you doubt the mushroom, do not take it.
AND CHICKEN ON THE CAKE
This year, the gardeners are in some kind of frustration – almost no one had strawberries (because of the June heat, it first dried up, and then, when the rains started, rotted), and the raspberries did not withstand the high temperatures of the beginning of the season and did not start in the berry .
But in the forest went blueberries, which the main nutritionist of Moscow Antonina Starodubova recently contributed to the top three most useful berries.
According to the chief nutritionist, blueberries are the top three in terms of their usefulness. It has the most antioxidants: substances that inhibit the aging process and the development of diseases of old age.
In addition, blueberries have such beneficial substances as beta-carotene, folate, choline, manganese, as well as vitamins A, E and B9. But the fact that blueberries are good for vision is nothing more than a myth, which manufacturers of dietary supplements speculate on. Blueberry is no more useful for vision than any other berry.
In second place, Dr. Starodubova put the cherry. Nutritionists value it primarily for the low number of calories and often include people who want to lose weight in their diets. In addition, cherry is a real storehouse of useful substances. However, its use rarely causes allergies.
Starodubova notes that cherry is good for the prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system.
Well, the nutritionist put the watermelon in third place, which is still considered by people as a berry, although biologists many years ago transferred it to another family – pumpkin. And yet it had no effect on the usefulness of the watermelon. In addition to vitamins A, B, C, it is rich in folic acid, magnesium and lycopene.
“The main function of lycopene is antioxidant, it is important in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cancer,” says Antonina Starodubova.
And still it is necessary to take into account the fact that there is a lot of sugar in watermelon, so eating it in kilograms is definitely not worth it – 400 grams of watermelon pulp per day will be quite enough.