Mikhail Bogomolov, President of the Russian Diabetes Association and Head of the School of Health of Psychophysical Self-Regulation named after Ernesto Roma ”, in an accessible form, tells about the bread unit (HE). For any diabetic, this is one of the most important concepts in order to properly follow a diet.
For many years there were big problems in order to give a specific definition, interpretation of this term. Meanwhile, it must be done as quickly as possible in order to protect the health of tens, hundreds of thousands of people who are diabetic and can harm themselves by eating certain foods.
Appropriate food labeling has already been introduced so that people understand what they can and cannot eat. However, unfortunately, there is still no official medical concept "bread unit".
XE = 10 or 12 grams of digestible carbohydrates. But this is not the same thing, right? As a result, each manufacturer puts its understanding of XE on the product label. However, according to our recommendations, carbohydrates should be 60% of the daily caloric intake and of them no more than 10% of the fast-absorbing.
How not "baptized" XE in recent years! Translated into Russian different foreign concepts. Here and Change (changge), eng. – “exchange”, equal to 8 grams of digestible carbohydrates according to the English system of measures. And the corn unit, Latin American – 15 grams of digestible carbohydrates. And the grain unit (Michael Berger, University of Düsseldorf) – 12 grams of carbohydrates, of which 2 grams are non-digestible. And when translating into Russian, they wrote: “1 ХЕ – 12 grams of carbohydrates” or “1 ХЕ – 12 grams of digestible carbohydrates”.
All this confusion repeatedly, not too accurately and competently reprinted in the media without specifying what it is about. And then it was put on labels of confectionery, bakery and other products. Appeared on different sites various, more than 50% of the XE tables that did not coincide.
Need a standard
Often, XE in the Russian Federation was tried to define as “20-25 grams of white bread”. But what does this mean 20 or 25 grams? The difference of 25% is an unacceptable mistake, threatening the most serious consequences when selecting doses of pills or insulin. The cost of a mistake is too great – the health of millions of people. But the erroneous information was carried out on tens and hundreds of billions of labels for various products.
Obviously, to compare different products, a STANDARD product (measure) was needed, with which it was necessary to compare, measure. It was necessary to have the concept of the type "meter", "kilogram", "second".
Meanwhile, with the adoption of the Federal Law "On Technical Regulation" there was a revolution in standardization. Soviet GOSTs were canceled. The notion of “exit” has disappeared in bakery products. It has become impossible to say in what quantity of “white bread” there are 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. It could be a piece of 20, 40 or 60 grams …
To overcome the contradictions, the Russian Diabetes Association (RDA) and the Russian Diabetes Newspaper (RDG) ANBO suggested using the International Decimal System of Measures (SI) adopted in the Russian Federation. The definition of "HE RDA – this is 10 grams of digestible carbohydrates."
The standard of comparison for the RDA bread unit for other products was a hinge of 18.5 grams of white lean bread, made according to GOST USSR № 266987-86 from 12/01/1986. Such a weight of bread contains 10 grams of digestible carbohydrates.
In addition, it was decided how to consider sweeteners and sugar substitutes in the composition of carbohydrates.
Let's not forget that the discussion and adoption of the standard XE RDA took more than three years with active discussion at the meetings and conferences of the Russian Guild of Bakers and Confectioners with the assistance of G. G. Onishchenko, when he was the chief sanitary doctor of Russia, when he was supervising the program “Bread is health”.
There was a legend, the truth of which is difficult to establish that after awarding G. Onishchenko with a diploma and a sign of the holder of the honorary badge of the RDA "Together we are stronger!" 3rd degree for assisting in developing the HE standard he came with a bronze badge on his jacket lapel . Onishchenko these days was just being transferred to assistant presidency of the Russian Federation.
On the question of D. Medvedev about what a sign is and why it is not golden (1st degree), G. Onishchenko answered that this is a “soldier’s” 3rd degree sign, which can only be obtained "on the battlefield", but silver and gold give sweat, on increasing. And if you immediately become the owner of the gold mark of the 1st degree, then the signs of the 3rd and 2nd degrees are then impossible to get …