Milk is the hottest topic of the last days.
It all started with the publication of Spanish scientists from the University of Granada and the University of Madrid. They published a scientific review of milk and dairy products, based on an analysis of 14 studies conducted earlier, and concluded that milk is more useful than harmful.
WHAT THE SPANISH SCIENTISTS HAVE DETECTED
In particular, they stated that people consuming milk and dairy products have a lower risk of developing two types of cancer – colorectal and bladder. In addition, it turned out that milk reduces the risk of the development of the so-called sarcopenia in the elderly, muscle loss. Also, moderate consumption of low-fat milk reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.
In addition to these positive effects, it was unexpectedly found that milk does not reduce the risk of bone fractures in general and the risk of a hip fracture in particular (this is one of the most dangerous fractures in the elderly). They are explained by osteoporosis – loss of calcium by bone tissue and its weakening because of this. And the main source of calcium in our diet are milk and dairy products. And primarily to strengthen their bones and recommended us to drink from childhood and throughout life.
These problems with milk so excited the population of Russia that later several days in a row the Ministry of Health and related specialists continued to comment on this research and talk about how they see milk and dairy products.
The chief freelance nutritionist of the Ministry of Health of Russia Viktor Tutelyan stated: “I can say that milk is a very good product created by nature itself in order to support a new life. This is a baby food. Used around the world as a source of complete protein, a number of biologically active compounds. This is the main source of calcium. As for the specifics, I have not seen such evidence-based data and am not sure that this is true. ”
According to Darya Khalturina, who heads the department for the prevention of risk factors at the Central Research Institute for Organizing and Informatization of Healthcare at the Russian Ministry of Health, milk is also an important product: “Dairy products consumption is regularly and in moderation associated with a noticeable decrease in all-cause mortality. On average, the optimal amount is 200 grams per day, and after consuming 400 grams, the effect ceases to be positive. ”
Let's take a look at the basic statements of Spanish scientists and see if there are real facts behind them. Let's start with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type II. These diseases should be talked about together; they are based on a special form of obesity caused by excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal area. This is accompanied by a violation of the body's insulin sensitivity, leading to the progress of obesity and the development of diabetes. In fact, diabetes itself is part of the metabolic syndrome. In its entirety, this disease includes four ailments – obesity, type II diabetes, arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease.
Studies of the role of milk in this direction have been going on for a long time, and Spanish scientists have shown that daily pint of milk (approximately 570 ml) reduces the risk of the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in men by 62%. Why is this happening? There is something in milk that normalizes insulin in the body. Because of this, it protects against metabolic syndrome and diabetes. These substances are called a complex term – conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA for short. Associated with them are all the beneficial effects already listed.
We do not produce these acids, and as vitamins we can get them only as part of food. Most of them in milk and dairy products, they are in the meat of ruminants (beef, veal and mutton). CLA produce bacteria that live in the stomach of cows, sheep, and other animals that eat plant foods. From the digestive system, CLA is absorbed and distributed throughout the body of the animal, incorporating into the composition of fats. Thus, they get into the milk, and then into all the products that are made from it.
MILK AND CANCER
The Spaniards conducted a meta-analysis of 26 studies that determined the relationship between milk, dairy products and bladder cancer. Addiction turned florid. Those who consumed a lot of whole milk (with high natural fat), had a higher risk of developing this tumor. But those who loved more fermented dairy products or regular milk, they fell ill less often.
High intake of dairy products in general and milk in particular was associated with a lower risk of developing all types of colorectal cancer. This disease includes malignant tumors of the colon and sigmoid colon, as well as the rectum. In addition, evidence has been identified indicating that skimmed milk can reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.
But with prostate cancer in men is more difficult. There are many studies in which it has been found that consuming large amounts of milk and its products increases the risk of developing this tumor. Spanish scientists have made a meta-analysis of such studies and concluded that these data are contradictory and do not agree well with each other. And therefore this risk should not be overestimated.
MILK AND OLD MAN
Contrary to the widespread myth, older people can consume milk and dairy products. Spanish scientists based on a meta-analysis of a number of works have concluded that in older people they can reduce the risk of developing weakness. This is a typical symptom that indicates the progression of aging, and skimmed milk and yogurt are especially useful for slowing it down. They will also help to slow down the loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia). It is especially useful for this to add milk-rich foods to regular diets. Spaniards in the first place call ricotta cheese, and we also add cottage cheese.
As you can see, milk and all dairy products are generally healthy. They have a lot of useful things, but however there are not very clear and even negative effects of such products on health. For example, it seems simply surprising that milk and its products do not prevent the risk of fractures in the elderly. After all, we have always been taught that this is the best food for strengthening bones. Paradoxically, in recent years, more and more data appears to disprove this.
For example, Swedish scientists have found that excessive milk intake can make bones even more fragile. So, for women who drank three or more glasses of milk every day, fractures occurred almost 2 times more often. According to scientists, milk turned out to be more harmful for women than for men. With them, each additional glass of this drink increased the risk of death by about 15%, and for men by 3%.
These facts are scary. But in fact, if you look at them soberly, you should not be afraid. Firstly, how many people drink 3 cups of milk every day or more? Secondly, all these facts are connected only with milk, and not with dairy products. Lovers of dairy products had no such problems. It turns out that the milk itself is not so useful as the products from it. Scientists explain these negative effects of milk on galactose. This harmful sugar is quite a lot in milk, but in the production of fermented milk products it collapses.
So remember: you shouldn't be afraid of milk, but products from it, especially sour-milk, are more useful. And 2-4 of these products per day will only benefit.