Mariana Teneta, head of antenatal clinic, an obstetrician-gynecologist and a geneticist at the Medical Center “Medicaver” told 24 for Health, what is cervical cancer, why it occurs, who is at risk, about symptoms and prevention of the disease.
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The incidence of cervical cancer and mortality from this disease in Ukraine, unfortunately, are high today. The incidence rate is 19-20 cases per 100 thousand female population, and the death rate is 9 women per 100 thousand.
In Ukraine, high mortality from cervical cancer // pixabay.com
Every year, this pathology is diagnosed in 5-6 thousand Ukrainian women. 20-30% of women who detect cervical cancer already have stage III-IV of the disease – it is an advanced form of cancer that is almost impossible to cure, and 15% of these women do not live a year from the time the diagnosis was made.
Gynecologist Mariana Teneta “It should be noted that cervical cancer is a serious demographic problem, because this disease is the main cause of death for women of reproductive age. The peak incidence is in young women 35-45 years. Therefore, undoubtedly, this problem is extremely relevant. And the solutions to it are very simple — simple preventive measures should be followed. ”
What you need to know, and most importantly – do not get sick
Cervical cancer does not occur unexpectedly. It will take several years. Diseases precede precancerous changes in the epithelium. Such changes are called dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Modern studies have shown that 90% of cervical cancer cases are caused by a common human papillomavirus (HPV) virus, which can cause cervical epithelial dysplasia.
If untreated, this condition eventually goes into glandular or squamous cell carcinoma. Today, a direct link between the development of cervical cancer and the persistence (long-term existence) of human papillomavirus in the female body has been proven.
Gynecologist Mariana Teneta “More than 100 varieties of this pathogen have been identified, however, only a few of them can lead to serious pathological changes if ingested. HPV is characterized by exceptional damage to the epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes (genitalia, oral cavity, larynx, eyes). "
The 16, 18, 31, 33, 48, 52, 58 types of HPV are most dangerous for humans (high oncogenic properties), but strains 16 and 18 are the most important in the development of cervical cancer, which manifested in 70-80% of patients with this pathology. research data from around the world.
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In particular, infection with papillomaviruses is in most cases not accompanied by specific signs. The proven effect of certain low-oncogenic types in the development of genital warts (wart) of the genital organs is a completely benign process.
Regular examination by a gynecologist can save lives // revitaldon.ru
Risk factors for cervical cancer
The early onset of sexual activity (for women who have begun sexual life at the age of under 20, cancer occurs 2.5 times more often). The number of sexual partners and their frequent change (the number of partners from 3 to 6 increases the risk of getting sick by 8 times, and with the number of partners more than 6, the risks increase to 14 times). Immunodeficiency states. Smoking (having a bad habit increases the chances of getting the disease doubled). Chronic inflammatory diseases of the cervix.
Symptoms and early signs
The cunning of cervical cancer is that in the initial stages of the disease is asymptomatic. As the disease progresses, a woman may experience the following symptoms:
Cervical cancer – symptoms and early signs of abnormal vaginal bleeding bleeding between menstruation; contact bleeding during or after intercourse, douching or examination by a gynecologist; bleeding after menopause; pelvic pain; pain and discomfort during intimate relationships; in the later stages of cancer, weight loss, hematuria, hydronephrosis, back and limb pain, fatigue occurs.
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