Both the main and side effects of anesthetics are due to the fact that they are all powerful suppressants of the nervous system, which affect the functioning of the brain and spinal cord, heart and respiratory tract.
See also: How to prepare for surgery under anesthesia
How does anesthesia work?
Any anesthesia, local or general, that is, anesthesia is a medical intervention in the body that helps to avoid pain stress. Indeed, in response to a pain impulse in the cerebral cortex, an awareness of pain passes, in order to prevent this, it is necessary to block nerve endings.
Local anesthesia stops the transmission of a pain impulse in a certain area – the drug passes through the cell membranes and disrupts the reactions in them. As a result, nerve impulses are blocked, and pain is not felt.
Anesthesia or general anesthesia is an effective method when intervention in significant parts of the body is expected. In this state, a person sleeps and is in a relaxed state, because tense muscles should not interfere with the doctor.
In general, anesthesia is divided into three types: general (anesthesia), regional and local.
How do general anesthesia
Anesthesia can be of two types: inhalation and intravenous. The difference in the method of transmission of the anesthetic.
During inhalation anesthesia, a substance in the form of gas enters the body through the lungs using a special apparatus. With intravenous anesthesia, the anesthetic is injected into a vein. These types of anesthesia are often combined during surgery.
Inhalation anesthesia has the advantage that after the operation is completed, the gas supply can be stopped, it quickly leaves the lungs and the patient wakes up after two to three minutes. An anesthetic injected into a vein lasts longer.
Anesthesia is a condition in which the body is under the influence of several drugs that are selected by an anesthesiologist.
Classic anesthesia covers the following steps:
Anesthesia The patient falls asleep under the influence of hypnotic drugs that suppress consciousness. Analgesia, i.e. anesthesia. Most often used narcotic analgesics. Muscle relaxation, or muscle relaxation.
Anesthesia has side effects
Consequences of anesthesia
Each anesthetic has side effects. The most common are nausea, vomiting, severe headache, weakness, decreased blood pressure. As the drug is withdrawn from the body, side effects disappear.
See also: Myths about general anesthesia: what you should not be afraid of
Almost all anesthetics damage brain cells – some of the neurons die. Memory disorders and decreased attention span may persist for several hours or days.
To avoid nausea, doctors recommend eating and drinking nothing on the day of surgery.
The fact is that during anesthesia, the sphincters (a valve device that regulates the transition of contents from one organ of the body to another) relax, food from the stomach can flow through the esophagus, into the oral cavity, and from there into the respiratory tract. It can be life threatening.
Sometimes patients think that the doctor does not know that they took a few sips of coffee, and hide it. And coffee stimulates the secretion of gastric juice, and as a result the stomach is filled even more.
General anesthesia with muscle relaxation involves the artificial ventilation of the lungs – the patient is connected to the breathing apparatus.
Unpleasant sensations can occur if anesthesia has ended after the operation, that is, the anesthetic has stopped its effect and the person has come to his senses, and the effect of muscle relaxants continues.