Health 24 turned to the assistant professor of anesthesiology and intensive care at Bukovinian State Medical University, Sergei Akentiev, narcologist Oleg Strashok and psychologist Victoria Skuratova, to find out what a hangover is, why it occurs, how to treat it and what to do so that this condition does not occur.
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Before talking about the consequences of alcohol poisoning, it is worth recalling that in the human body there is a special detoxification system that cleanses the body of toxins. This system is represented by the cooperative activities of the immune system, liver and excretory organs: kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and skin. The latter remove toxic substances from the body. The detoxification system starts the processes of biotransformation (conversion) of toxins, the result of which is the formation of less toxic substances that are easily eliminated from the body.
A hangover is a very dangerous condition that needs to be treated // photo: Vincarta
However, unfortunately, there is another way of converting foreign substances – the so-called "lethal synthesis". As a result of the breakdown of substances such as methyl, ethyl alcohols, ethylene glycol, organophosphorus compounds, more toxic metabolites are formed, which, in fact, predetermines poisoning. For example, in case of poisoning with ethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde is formed as a result of its biotransformation, which is 10 times more toxic than alcohol itself.
Symptoms of a Hangover
A condition of a hangover is considered to be a number of subjectively unpleasant sensations or symptoms that occur several hours later or the day after drinking alcohol.
Hangover – Symptoms Severe headache of a pulsating nature;
Dry mouth, heartburn, thirst;
Palpitations, heart rhythm disturbance;
Increased urine output, impaired stool;
A sharp mental perception of the environment, trembling limbs and the whole body, irritability;
Redness of the eyes, sensitivity to light and noise, loss of appetite;
Depression can embrace the so-called "adrenaline longing" – a feeling of guilt, a feeling that on the eve did something inappropriate and wrong.
Causes of a Hangover
This situation, as a rule, occurs in the case of alcohol consumption in doses significantly exceeding the individual's individual abilities to oxidize all alcohol. This provokes the accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde.
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When it interacts with dopamine and norepinephrine, tetrahydroisocholines are formed, and with tryptophan, carbonyls are formed. These substances have hallucinogenic and psychotropic activity. Acetaldehyde in large doses causes loss of consciousness, sensitivity and motor activity. Thus, a hangover is nothing but poisoning with acetic aldehyde.
The type of drink consumed (brandy, brandy, whiskey, gin, tequila, moonshine, etc.) does not affect the severity of the hangover. It is important to exceed the individual threshold dose. It is believed that the critical dose of the risk of a hangover in healthy people is 1 gram of ethyl alcohol per 1 kilogram of body weight.
So, for an adult male, whose weight is 80 kilograms, the indicated risk dose is 80 milliliters of pure ethyl alcohol or 200 milliliters of vodka.
Psychologist Victoria Skuratova "Also, drinking alcohol can exacerbate chronic diseases, such as: chronic pancreatitis, chronic cholecystitis, chronic gastritis, chronic gastroduodenitis, gastric ulcer and others. Also, alcohol abuse has a bad effect on kidney function, therefore, if there was a history of kidney disease, you should drink alcohol with more caution. "
How to drink so that there is no hangover
Is it possible to avoid this condition? Can. Ideal – do not drink alcohol and prevent poisoning, as well as those unpleasant sensations associated with a hangover. When you drink alcohol, you need to remember the critical dose of a hangover and the individual measure, which is desirable to share at a party.
If you do not exceed an individual dose of alcohol – a hangover can be avoided // photo: talkspace
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It is also important to observe the following rules:
Allow yourself with each toast to take one sip of alcohol. Avoid drinking alcohol on an empty stomach. Do not mix different drinks (champagne and whiskey, vodka, wine and beer). Obligatory snack before and after alcohol. Wash down with orange or cherry juice, still mineral water. Do not forget to interrupt your meal for a stay in the fresh air, for active movement and communication. Associate Professor Sergei Akentiev "Basic: eating and drinking alcohol is not an end in itself, it is not a way to poison yourself, but a way of a civilized, cultural pastime in a team. Experienced people recommend eating one teaspoon of butter with one egg before drinking. This will protect you from quick intoxication. "
Strong alcohol is less likely to cause a hangover. It is often called sweet drinks, cocktails and others. Fusel oils contained in moonshine, dark beer, tequila, whiskey also increase the hangover. You should never mix different drinks and drink alcohol with soda.
Narcologist Oleg Strashok "The general condition of the body and the ability to relax and sleep well are also of great importance. If this is not possible, it is not recommended to drink alcohol. It is also worth refraining from drinking if you feel unwell, have a painful condition. It is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol in bathhouses and saunas. "
How to get rid of a hangover
In case of symptoms of a hangover, pain during a hangover can weaken acetylsalicylic acid: Upsarin Upsa, Aspirin-S. But in large quantities they can not be used, since ulcerative bleeding can occur. In addition, an overdose contributes to the development of dizziness, nausea, stomach pain, as well as a decrease in visual acuity and hearing.
The use of regular activated carbon (5-7 tablets) or other absorbents (Enterosgel, Atoxil) will not be superfluous. To improve the emotional state and brain function will help drugs "Glycine" or "Phosphogliv."
A hangover cannot be overcome with alcohol // photo: news.tj
In case of nausea and the urge to vomit, it is better not to restrain yourself and empty the stomach. It is strictly forbidden to deal with a hangover with alcohol. This will only worsen the condition.
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Optimal is the limitation of activity, preferably in a state of sleep. If there is a hangover thirst instead of ordinary water, preference is given to using cabbage or cucumber brine, which are considered to be optimally balanced solutions of potassium and sodium salts. This contributes to the occurrence of redox reactions in the liver.
Associate Professor Sergey Akentiev "Pomegranate or apple juices, honey dissolved in water with lemon added are effective hangover remedies. Ordinary water can be consumed with 3-5 Asparkama or Panangina tablets to regulate potassium and magnesium. Also, one simple means can be a weak soda solution (half a tablespoon of baking soda per glass of water), which normalizes the shift in acid-base balance. It is useful to use milk or kefir to bind and stop absorption of toxins that accumulate intestine, or replace the meat broth. "
Traditional strong coffee and tea can make a hangover worse, causing cardiovascular complications (festive heart syndrome). Therefore, the use of stimulating drinks is strictly prohibited.
Psychologist Victoria Skuratova "First, you should listen to your desires. If a person wants to sleep, then you need to sleep; if a person wants to eat, then you should eat, but if you don’t want to do this, you don’t have to force yourself. Second, you should stick to a diet. Exclude: fried, spicy, fatty, salty. It should be steamed vegetables or meat, cereals, diet soups. Thirdly, it is worth drinking plenty of water. Table water such as Polyana Kvasova, Borjomi is ideal ". Water will help relieve intoxication and reduce dehydration."
We emphasize that the lethal dose of alcohol is from 4 to 12 grams per kilogram (on average 300 ml of 96% ethyl alcohol in the absence of tolerance to it). Alcoholic coma develops at a concentration of ethyl alcohol in the blood of about 3 ppm, and the lethal concentration is 5-6 ppm.
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