Even if you are not worried about any problems in the oral cavity, this does not mean that you have healthy teeth. Latent diseases can develop in the oral cavity that you may not even know about.
It would seem that everything is obvious here: I noticed a black dot – I ran to the doctor. But it also happens that seemingly there are no black dots, the outside tooth is intact, but the disease has already begun its dark business. Cervical (basal) caries is one of the most dangerous types of caries. It got its name because of the characteristic place of development of the disease – the area of the tooth neck. Its main danger is the complete absence of signs of the disease at the initial stage. Symptoms begin to manifest immediately with severe toothache.
As a rule, the cause of illnesses is inadequate or improper hygiene. As a result, food debris and dental plaque accumulate – a favorable environment for pathogens.
The root layer of enamel is very thin and prone to rapid abrasion. At the very beginning of the development of the disease, the lesion is a small white speck covered with gum tissue. And although it does not cause any discomfort, after a few weeks the enamel may collapse. A painful reaction to cold and sweet foods may appear. Without the intervention of the dentist, the process of tooth decay will continue. In the case of root caries, the process very quickly turns into pulpitis.
The main danger of root caries is that tooth decay occurs rapidly. Only an experienced dentist can notice the onset of the pathological process with a thorough examination of the oral cavity.
Neoplasms inside the gums
Among the neoplasms that affect the gum tissue, the most common are granulomas and cysts. They are formed as a result of a running inflammatory process. These neoplasms must be treated. They will not go away on their own. With quality treatment, the tooth can be saved.
A cyst and a granuloma of a tooth can be ignored for a long time. For several years, you may not be bothered by any problem in the oral cavity, but on the control general image, the doctor diagnoses a dark spot in the area of the tooth root – this is it.
A granuloma is a cavity located at the root of a tooth and filled with dead cells. The presence of granulomas indicates a pathological process in the tooth. This process promotes the growth of granulomatous tissue or an increase in the volume of the cyst.
As a rule, the cause of granuloma is untreated or insufficiently cured apical periodontitis (inflammation of the ligamentous apparatus of the tooth in the area of the apical foramen – the place where the nerve enters the root of the tooth). As a result, a capsule is formed at the root of the tooth, which protects the jaw bone tissue from the effects of pathogenic microorganisms. The average granuloma diameter is usually 5 to 8 mm.
A cyst is a cavity filled with fluid or pus. It is formed when an infection enters the gum tissue during treatment or complicated teething (wisdom tooth cyst). The appearance of cysts is also facilitated by injuries accompanied by damage to the jaw bones.
Cysts can form around an unerupted, but already formed, deciduous, permanent tooth, or simply deep in the gum. In any case, they must be removed. The cyst cavity can reach up to several centimeters in diameter.
The main danger of such neoplasms is their asymptomaticity. A cyst, like a granuloma, can be in the gum tissue for years. Often, these neoplasms are discovered by chance, during an X-ray examination. And although granulomas and cysts often do not manifest themselves for a long time, the process can become acute at any time. So, when immunity is weakened (for example, due to a cold or hypothermia), a cavity filled with pus can provoke the development of an inflammatory process in the periosteum (periostitis, flux). Often it is the cyst or granuloma of the upper jaw that causes purulent sinusitis. In addition, the gradually growing neoplasm presses on the adjacent teeth, leading to their loss, and even to serious damage to the jaw bones.
Periodontal disease and periodontitis
Many people confuse periodontitis and periodontal disease. Although they have similarities, they are two different diseases. Periodontal disease is extremely rare, mainly in old age, against the background of metabolic-dystrophic disorders in the body, and periodontitis, as a rule, develops due to the effect of a microbial agent on the gums and tooth tissues.
The cause of periodontal disease is not fully understood, but among the risk factors are hereditary predisposition, decreased immunity, hormonal disorders, injuries to the jaws and gums, abnormal bite, improper treatment and dental prosthetics.
Periodontitis is one of the most common diseases on the planet. According to the WHO, more than 70% of the world’s population suffers from this disease.
The cause of the disease is a violation of hygiene and self-cleaning of the interdental spaces. When food gets stuck and is inappropriately evacuated, inflammation gradually builds up. As a result, the tissues that hold the tooth are destroyed.
The onset of the disease is asymptomatic. Sometimes mild discomfort and redness of the gums may appear. Periodontitis treatment is effective in the initial stages. When symptoms such as bleeding, bad breath, exposing of the roots of the teeth and loosening appear, the treatment can no longer be as effective as at the beginning of the disease.
Periodontitis prevention method: thorough oral care combined with professional hygiene twice a year.
Sometimes, as a result of improper formation of dental tissues, a kind of enamel deposits can form on the teeth. These growths are also called enamel pearls or beads. In professional language, the disease is called enamel hyperplasia. The growths can be located on the coronal part, in the pulp chambers or on the roots of the teeth. Dentists insist that in the last two cases, such structures must be removed, even if they do not cause inconvenience. The fact is that “pearls” can lead to the development of caries and pulpitis. In addition, enamel beads on the teeth may indicate a tendency to develop periodontal disease.
Careful oral care, professional hygiene twice a year and a mandatory annual examination will help protect yourself from hidden diseases. It must also be remembered that any discomfort indicates the presence of pathology. If you find bleeding, swelling or redness of the gums, discoloration or excessive sensitivity of the teeth, bad breath, you should immediately consult a doctor.