On World Cancer Day, Health 24 spoke with Kirill Burmich, an oncology surgeon, head of the oncology department of the Dobrobut TC.
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What types of oncology in the first place in men and women
According to the national cancer registry for 2016, the most common cancer forms of malignant neoplasms are arranged in the following order.
1st place – the trachea, bronchi, lungs;
2 place – the prostate gland;
3rd place – the stomach;
4 place – colon;
5 place – rectum;
6 place – bladder;
7th place – a kidney;
8th place – pancreas;
9th place – throat;
10th place – the larynx.
Women and men suffer from different types of cancer pixabay.com
1st place – the mammary gland;
2 place – the body of the uterus;
3rd place – colon;
4 place – cervix;
5 place – rectum;
6 place – ovaries;
7th place – the stomach;
8th place – trachea, bronchi, lungs;
9th place – the thyroid gland;
10 place – pancreas.
General Cancer Prevention
Everyone knows about the rules of a healthy lifestyle. And at first glance they seem to be commonplace: proper nutrition, reduction in alcohol consumption, quitting smoking, regular exercise. It is reliably known that they affect the quality of a person’s life and are a simple but effective way to improve their health.
To reduce the incidence, there are two types of prophylaxis:
Primary – this is a vaccination.
Secondary – early diagnosis and screening, which should be initiated at the national level. Using the example of developed countries, it has been proved that with this approach, the death rate from malignant tumors will decrease.
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Screening and early detection of cancer
Early diagnosis means early detection of malignant neoplasms in patients with already existing symptoms. Thanks to timely diagnosis, cancer can be detected at a potentially treatable stage in order to improve the survival rate and quality of life of the patient.
Screening is a survey of a healthy population that can detect an oncological disease in its early stages even before the onset of symptoms.
Some forms of cancer are subject to screening.
Screening campaigns significantly reduced cancer mortality pixabay.com
Cervical cancer in women
To reduce the death rate from cervical cancer, vaccination against human papillomavirus, which contributes to the development of this cancer, is carried out. This vaccination should be given to women aged 9 to 26 years or before sexual activity. Vaccinations need to do and boys.
Starting from 30 to 65 years old, women need to visit a gynecologist and every year, as a screening, carry out a PAP test, regardless of whether the person has any symptoms or not. This fluid cytology is considered the most effective in screening cervical cancer.
By screening the breast, it is possible to detect cancer in its early stages.
Starting at the age of 40, a woman needs to make a decision about regular mammography together with the doctor. If the oncological disease was with relatives of the first degree of relationship (mothers, sisters), then this examination should be carried out earlier. From 45 to 74 years old, all women should have a mammogram every year, regardless of risk.
This year, screening tests for smokers of lung cancer were officially introduced in smokers. There is even such a thing as pack / years. People with a 30 pack / year fall into the high risk group. That is, if they smoke one pack per day for 30 years or 3 packs per day for 10 years.
Such patients aged 55 to 74 years old should have low-dose computed tomography of the lungs in order to detect the symptoms of lung cancer in advance.
Smokers need to do prophylactic tomography \ pixabay.com
If any of the relatives (especially the first degree of relationship – father, mother, brother, sister) had malignant or benign colon tumors, it is necessary to perform a total colonoscopy between the ages of 45 and 75 every 10 years or do an immune-histochemical test every year blood in feces.
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Routine screening is not recommended. However, patients from a high risk group (especially the first degree of kinship – father, brother) from the age of 45 need to regularly visit the urologist and determine the level of the tumor marker of the prostate gland (prostate-specific antigen) in the blood.
Are non-traditional treatments effective?
Classical medicine does not recommend the use of non-traditional methods of treatment, because modern science is based on evidence-based medicine. In order for any treatment method to apply in practice, he must first undergo clinical trials and prove his effectiveness.
Oncologist Kirill Burmich “I am unaware of clinical studies that would prove the effectiveness of non-traditional methods of treatment. However, we should not forget that with cancer, hope plays an important role. If a patient believes in a certain method, and he does not harm his health, we have no right to prohibit his use. I do not recommend alternative treatment methods. However, if I find out that the patient is using them and prohibiting it, he will continue anyway, but no longer telling me about it, which is even worse. That is why it is better to speak frankly with the patient, to discuss all the issues and risks that may arise when combined with traditional methods of treatment in oncology, which have proven to be effective. Because there are drugs that are toxic, but the patient may not know about it or from him deliberately hide such information. ”
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